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tv   Democracy Now  LINKTV  September 17, 2014 3:00pm-4:01pm PDT

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( stone being chipped )
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man: well, can you see anything? second man: yes, wonderful things.
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j. carter brown: for over 3,300 years, the pharaoh tutankhamun has gazed serenely at eternity, confident in his ability to conquer death. everlasting life was his by right of birth. he was pharaoh, king of egypt, the mightiest empire of the ancient world. he was a god. nothing was beyond his means. when tutankhamun sat upon his throne, thousands of years of history and achievement had already preceded him. surely a nation that could bring itself into being and create wonders like the great pyramids could overcome man's final enemy--death. and overcome death tutankhamun has--at least
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according to the ancient egyptian funerary beliefs, for the very act of speaking his name provides magic to infuse tutankhamun with everlasting life. names were important to the egyptians. a name symbolized one's personality and even one's very existence. to remember the dead was to make them live again. and soutankhamun must, for the whole world has known his name ever since that day in november of 1922, when archeologist howard carter anhis patron, lord carnarvon, tued a forgotten pharaoh into a legend. the story of tutankhamun's treasures begins here in the secret valley of the kings in egypt, across the river from the ancient capital of thebes.
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the valley of the kings is hot and very dry. in the summer, the temperature can go up to 120 degrees. it would be a terrible place to live, but what a marvelous place to keep things for eternity. pharaohs' tombs, equipped with all the necessities for a voyage into eternity, were hidden here. this is hundreds of miles from the great pyramids. the problem with the pyramids was that they were too conspicuous to robbers. in this valley, the idea was that no one would know. this fascination with the afterlife, and the state of mind of the ancient egyptians in general, can be best understood by learning something about their environment-- which basically means... the river nile. all activity centered on its water and its fertile banks.
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( sheep and goats bleating ) the desert, literally a footstep away, was a constant reminder to the egyptians that, without the nile, there would be no life. the nile offered ancient egypt more than just its life-giving water or the transportation lifeline that unified an empire. every year about july, the floodwaters of the nile would gradually rise, carrying fertile silt down from the headwaters until the farmland had been renewed as the floodwars receded.
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not surprisingly, the ancient egyptians living with this cycle soon came to equate the regular pattern of the nile and its gift of rebirth with the universe itself. their most important philosophical principles stemmed from that equation. it was the idea of maat-- roughly "rightness" or "order." everything about the egyptian way of life had a pattern, a rhythm, a sense of orderly beginning and end. so too, the egyptians believed, this must be the way of man. man's end on earth was merely a beginning in the next world. when a pharaoh asked, "how long is life?" he was told, "thou art destined for millions of years, for a lifetime of millions." ( ship's horn blowing )
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when howard carter returned to the valley of the kings from england in 1922, it was his last chance to find the elusive tomb of the pharaoh tutankhamun. for six years he had searched, but now his support from his sponsor, lord carnarvon, was almost exhausted. each morning, carter rode into the valley-- as trists still do--and continued his work undaunted. the arch, as always, had to be done slowly and painstakingly by hand, the tons of earth and stone mod by small baskets. then, five days after the beginning of the season's dig, the work stopped. howard carter recounted the story in his book the tomb of tutankhamun: howard carter: "hardly had i arrived on the work
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"thai was greeted by the aouncement "that a step cut in the rock had been discovered." brown: but what had carter found? just another emptyomb? some unimportant storeroom? howa carter: "with trembling hands,madeh "in the upper left-hand corner of the doorway. "as my eyes grew accustomed to the light, "details of the room within emerged slowly from the mist. "surely, never before in the whole history of excavation "had such an amazing sight been seen "as the light of our torch revealed to us: "strange animals, statues, and gold. "everywhere the glint of gold. "we had seen enough. "we reclosed the hole, mounted our donkeys, "and rode home down the valley, strangely silent and subdued."
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brown: the discovery of tutankhamun's tomb in 1922 had an instantaneous and shattering effect on the world's imagination that continues to this very day. extraordinary numbers of visitors descended upon the tomb--sometimes to the point where the excavators were unable to function. egyptian motifs swept through the world of fashion and design. as the whole worldthrilled,
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death and the supernatural seemed to gin to prey upon the excavators. lord carnarvon died rst--from the bite of a mereosquito. as death closed over him in april of 1923, only a few months after the opening of the tomb, the lights of cairo extinguished with him. stranger still, at the same instant in england, s dog gave a terrifying howl and died. then georges benedite, the head of egyptian antiquities at the louvre museum, died of a stroke after leaving a tomb. still another death occurred-- that of arthur c. mace from the metropolitan museum in new york, who was assisting carter. the bizarre events surrounding the opening of tutankhamun's tomb
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appear today to have been merely coincidental. the unextinguishable legend of the mummy's curse had begun. who was this king? what was he like? what did he achieve in a life lived 34 centuries ago? we don't know for sure. all we have are images. even with its discovery, the tomb still refuses to yield many of its secrets. we know only that the young boy king, tutankhamun, grew up during one of the most turbulent periods in egypt's long history. it was a time when the stability of egypt had been wracked by a religious and political revolution that for the first time in history eliminated all gods but one: aten, the sun. the precipitator of the crisis was the pharaoh akhenaten,
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in whose court tutankhamun was raised. akhenaten was a strong-willed genius who has been called the first true individual in history. rather than portraying himself as the all-conquering pharaoh as egypt's kings had done for 1,700 years before, akhenaten revealed himself in human terms, with his family gathered about him. inead of wshipping t enormous and confusing gaxy of eptian gods in their human and animalorm, aknaten swept them all ide to make the sun, with its life-givingays, the symbol of his universe. the shock of such determined and rapid change to a system that had alwaybeen extraordinarily conservative
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was just too much. egypt shook. while tutankhamun's predecessor was creating a terrifying political and religious situation on the one hand, on the other he was able to infuse egyptian art with a revolutionary human warmth. akhenaten's ideas were strong enough to echo down through the next few kings. tutankhamun's reign, shortly thereafter, was to bear witness to this great flowering of artistic achievement. while there were many tombs larger than his, filled with vast arrays of objects, it has been argued that no tomb--other than akhenaten's--
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would have contained objects of a higher creative quality than tutankhamun's. howard carter had this to say about the art found in tutankhamun's tomb: howard carter: "among the immense quantities of material "in tutankhan's tomb-- as also exhibited "in the beautiful reliefs of his reign "in the great colonnade of the temple of luxor-- "we find extreme delicacy of style, "together with character of the utmost refinement. "in the case of a painted scene, vase, or statue, "the primary idea of art is obvious. "but in utilitarian objects,rt-- "as we know too well today-- is not a necessity. "here in this tomb, the artist value "seems to ha been always the first consideration. "what are the great qualities of egyptian art? "they are the sense of pure feeling
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"that creates an element of serene dignity-- "and herein lies its supreme essence-- "and the extraordinary degree of truth, form, and character "portrayed within such absolute simple and minimum line "by which it stands alone." brown: egyptian art was not immune to outside influence. in the shape of a pomegranate, this vase is witness to egypt's absorptive power. for one thing, silver was extremely rare in egypt. but for another, more importantly, pomegranates were not native to egypt at all, but to western asia. the egyptians adopted foreign designs and styles of workmanship and applied them to their own needs. whatever the sources of egypt's art, the results continue to this day to fascinate travelers and museum visitors around the world.
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the archaeologists began their search for the pharaoh here. where i'm standing, they found a flight of stone steps leading down to a sealed doorway. in the plaster were the seals of the ancient neopolis officials. inside the doorway they found this sloping passageway filled from top to bottom with stones and rubble. clearing this took time because, mixed in with all the filling, were numerous objects. one of these was the head of tutankhamun as a young child. this rather extraordinary sculpture has a very specific purpose and meaning. tutankhamun is seen emerging from a blue lotus, just as the sun god did at the moment of the earth's creation. through this recreation, tutankhamun, too, would be able to be reborn as thsun god
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every day throughout eternity. when a second sealed doorway at the end of the passageway was removed, the archaeologists finally gained entrance to the actual tomb. this first room they called the "antechamber." it was crammed with objects. their minds could barely cope with the profusion. just inside the door, where m standing, the archaeologists found a cup abandoned by some rather unsuccessful tomb robbers back in the days of the pharaohs. the cup is carved from one piece of alabaster and takes the shape of a white lotus.
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carter called this "the wishing cup," for the chalice carried an inscription that was the essence of the tomb's intention. it says, "may you spend millions of years, you who love thebes, sitting with your face to the north wind, your two eyes beholding happiness." on top of a large couch in the room stood a beautiful storage chest. inside the box was found a leopard's head made of wood covered with gesso and then overlaid with gold. quartz eyes give it a haunting, realistic touch, and the details are made with colored glass. tutankhamun's throne name, nebkheperure, is emblazoned on the leopard's forehead. the head belonged to a leopard-skin mantle being worn here in the tomb by ay, who took over
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as chief priest in the burialeremonknown as "the opening of the mouth." ay then took over as pharaoh. gold was used liberally in the tombs of egypt. as a wealthy nation, she could afford the use of the metal, but, more than that, gold was used in the belief that its immutability could be transferred to the deceased. this shrine, also found in the antechamber, is wood covered with a layer of gesso and then overlaid withheetold. the scenes on its sides are hily reminiscent akhenaten's period, with wa family groupings which convey aense of true emotion rarely evident in the more stylized art of other periods. between two of the animal-form beds was fnd a cache of abaster vases.
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almost all of them had had their contents of unguents removed by thieves. precious oils must have been extremely valuable in tutankhamun's time, inasmuch as the tomb robbers choose them over many other objects in the tomb. this vase is impressive for its carving, but it is also interesting for its symbolic reference to the unification of egypt. at one time, ept was two countries: the delta area called lower egypt and the southern region called upper egypt. when the two countries were united in 3100 b.c., the concept of unification became a theme, which continued throughout egypt's long history. tied together, symbolizing unity, are the lotus of upper egypt and the papyrus of lower egypt. it took the archaeologists seven weeks to clear this antechamber. now they were ready to open a third sealed door
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in their search for the pharaoh. carter and carnarvon had no idea of what to expect when they broke down the doorway. what they saw was beyond their imagination. it looked like a solid wall of gold before them. as the wall came more into view, they discovered it was, in fact, an enormous golden shrine. this might be what they were oking for. they entered the room, and their hearts sank. there was no seal on the door to the shrine. but then, when the door was opened, their spirits soared. the door to the second shrine was sealed with a mark of the necropolis officials. they had found their king. the shrine turned out to be not one shrine, but a whole series of shrines, one inside the other.
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it took carter two years' more work to reach the pharaoh at last. the strange object belonging to the ritual of mummification
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was found over in this corner here nearly six feet tall, it represents a headless animal skin hanging from a pole. as abstract and modern as the emblem may appear, it was in reality probably as old to tutankhamun as he is to us. tutankhamun's dy was found covered with jewelry. aesthetically, many of the pieces are rare treasures in and of themselves. t jewelry had a greater purpose in ancient egypt. bracelets, rings, and necklaces served as amulets to protect and aid both the living and the dead in their journey through this and the next life.
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ne to the burialhamber here was an open doorway to a room that howard carter came to call "the treasury." and an apt name it was because it contained some of the most extraordinary objects imaginable. the foremost object to catch carter's eye
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was a great shrine six feet tall surrounded by four beautiful goesses. these goddesses were procting the dead king's viscera, which were preserved separately during mummification. extremely elegant in form, the carved-wood figures were first covered with gesso and then gilded. on their head is placed the hieroglyphic symbol representative of each goddess. in this case, we see selket with her symbol and ally, the deadly scorpion. inside the great shrine, protected by selket and the other goddesses, were four small mummiform cases containing the pharaoh's internal organs. intricately inlaid on th outside with colored glass and carnelian, the inside as well was finished with chased gold designs and inscriptions. another remarkable sculpture from the treasury is the pharaoh tutankhamun harpooning.
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ordinarily, egyptian sculpture in the round rarely portrays a king or queen in motion. this piece does so with incredible realism-- a style previously believed to have originated only with the coming of the ancient greeks. the treasury was filled with objects both magical and beauful. there were miniature boats, statues of gods, servants who would come to life to serve the king, and personal articles like mirror cases. there was even a box in the shape of tutankhamun's name. the oval shape enclosing the king's name was a symbol reserved for royalty. it is actually a loop of rope tied at one end and means that the pharaoh was lord of all the sun encircled.
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how does one put into perspective a civilization that was most ancienyet extraordinarily sophisticated and able to maintain itself over a span of 3,000 years? french art historian elie faure suggests that ancient egypt, through the solidarity, the unity, and disciplined variety of its artistic products, through the enormous duration and sustained power of its efforts, offers the spectacle of the greatest civilization that has yet appeared on the earth. who can say? in any case, the artistry that has come down to us speaks for itself.
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( music )
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( indistinct comments ) carmean: "the family of saltimbanques" is picasso's first major picture, ose scale and complexity clearly indicate he intended it to be a masterpiece.
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in spite of the fact that it's 75 years old, "the family of saltimbanques" has never been examined as one wou examine an old master painting. in order to focus on theicture, it is first necessary to bring together two different kinds of detective procedures. the first of these is to examine what has been recorded about the picture, and the second is to look at it through the eyes of science. on a visible level, the characters in the picture are saltimbanques, or wandering entertainers. as rilke wrote in his elegy, which was inspired by the painting, "but tell me, who are they, these acrobats, even a little more fleeting than we ourselves, so urgently ever since childhood, wrung by an 'oh, for the sake of whom', never-contented will." rilke's question-- "who are they?"--
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finds part of its swer in the costumes of the figures, as picasso has presented them as harlequin, as jester, as columbine. these costumes identify the figures as belonging to the tradition of the commedia dell'arte, and the commedia dell'arte in france reaches its highest point in the court at versailles. ( musi) by the time of louis xiv, the commedia had acquired a very real presence at the french court. the commedia itself was an italian invention, when groups of wandering saltimbanques merged together certain performers-- harlequin and coine-- were developed in response tohe french court.
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another character invented in france was pierrot, or gilles, who was often played in a puffy, loose white costume. harlequin, in particular, became a favorite of the king, hauinalon waweto s theedo exce tween haequiand e king annoyed madame de maintenon, the king's mistress, and in 1697, she had the commedia banned from the court. over aradualperiod of t, the commedia dell'arte performers returned to their origins as saltimbanques, as wandering entertainers. we can see this in many paintings of the 19th century. daumier recorded theving through the streets of paris, carrying their bench or chair on which to perform. manet made references to the saltimbanque tradition by showing a group at rest in an empty countryside.
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cezanne draws upon the tradition of the commed dell'artcharacter, while seurat, for example,recos in 1900, picso leftn for p. he was 19 [years old]. he knew thisradition before he left, as we can see in a poster which employs the figure of pierrot celebrating neyeve. upon his arrival in paris, he immerses himself into the parisian world. not only the life of paris, but also the ongoing modern art: the work of des, the work of toulouse-ltr, the work of the pressionis, their themes of cafeife, of people on the street. all these themes are picked up by picasso as well, includin uimel e harlequin.
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but that figure, with it withdrawn,elanchy air, predicts what will happen to picasso in 1902, when he can't make a go of it in paris orcetoreo sp on in 1904 does he have another chance at the city. when he returns to france, as fortune has it, picasso moves into a studio in a large apartment building called le bateau-levoir, and e renewsis friendship with the poet x jacob, a poet he'd known from his earlier visit. and through jacob and this studio location, begins to meet oth young poets in france, including apollinaire and andre salmon. and literally, through this studio cation meeta neigorhood girl, fernande olivier, who eventually moves in wh him, in his studio in the bateau-levoir.
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these new friendships become fast and strong ones, and soon this group, who are called "la bande picasso," become almost inseparable. th spend theime wandering e streets of montmtre together where picasso begins to see the imagery of the street enrtner. ( accordion music ) ( apause ) ( entertainer speaking french ) it's also th these frids that he t begins to attend the circus, in the fall of 1904, and begins the theme of the saltimbanque. ( applause, dramatic circus music )
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as his mistress later recalled, picasso would stay there all evening, talking to the clowns. he admired them and he had real sympathy for them. ( man blows whistle ) perhaps it's by fortune that picasso responded to the sense of the lives of the performers offstage, with their families, in such a way that these images fill the paintings and drawings which follow his first visits to the circus. these circus works are what create the rose period. ( circus music continues )
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in writing about the period of "the family of saltimbanques," the early rose period, an art historian observed that, chronologically, we're entering the unknown. the sequence of images, how they all fit together, remains uncharted.
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as picasso's mistress said, "the blue period gave way to the saltimbanques." she further recalled, "the first of these was a large canvas, a group of acrobats on a plane. some are resting, the others working. a child is trying to balance on a large ball. if i remember correctly, this canvas wareinted several mes." this large painting has never been found. the imagery olivier described is known today from a small gouache study, where the performing figures e mentioned are prent, seen performing in an empty, barren landscape, the same kind of landscape which we find in "the family of saltimbanques." in one sketch for the painting, the landscape is not so barren, because here picassondices a hoe ceaking place the outirts of paris. within this study, we find that many of the characters
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assume the positions they have in the final picture, but they are different in their costume. another fferce involves the basket of flowers next to the little girl. in a separate study, she is shown petting a small dog. "the family of saltimbanques" resembled the study very closely, and that, at a later time, picasso revised the picture to its present appearance? the reasons for his doing so may reflect an episode in his own le which moved him emotionally and artistically
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because, ultimately, the figures in the paintg become, in fact, emblems of the people in picasso's life. the tall figure on the left is given a harlequin suit, but more importantly, given the face of the artist himself. the red jester, portly, already resembles apollinaire, while the figure of the boy with the barrel is, in his physique and, in many ways, in his face, an image of andre salmon. and the small acrobat on the right can be seen as a portrait of max jacob. and the little girl-- the little girl may be a clue to the meaning of the picture itself. during this period, olivier decided to adopt, on a trial basis, a small girl from an orphanage. olivier kept the child for several days
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in the batu-levoir, whershe became very popular with picasso and salmon and jacob, but not ultimately with olivier, who had her returned to the orphanage, despite the objections of the others. perhaps picasso saw, in the theme of the wandering entertainer a metaphor for the wandering, homeless fe of the adopted girl herself, could introduce t a differ a concurrent, theme into the grand painting itself. with the completion of "the family of saltimbanques," picasso drops the theme of the commedia dell'arte perform until 1909, and the beginning of his cubist period, when suddenly, a harlequin image returns to his work.
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thesag ctinu roughout his car including the very poignant portrait of his son, paolo, as harlequin. in 1914, the painting was purchased by aerman gallery named thannhauser and the gallery to the painting to much where, in 1915, it was sold to a private collector and remained off-view until the end of the 1920s. in 1931, the painting was sold to cheer dalof new yk. the dales took the painting to their apartment, but they also allowed scholars, critics, authors, access to the picture, so that although it was not on public view, it began to appear in articles and books on picao. d in 1came on a long-term loan to the national gallery of art in washington, where it has been on public view ever since.
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the painting is now part of the national gallery's permanent collection. in the summer of 1980, "the family of saltimbanques" is brought to the conservation laboratories of the national gallery, where it will undergo the first technical examination in the painting's history. since it's repainted, and maybe this area up here, but i'm not sure; what do you think? that seems fine; what about this area where there's that crackle which probably indicates there's several layers of paint? something going on over his head? yeah, we should look at that. i'm not sure about his head, whether--is it worth going in there or not? might as well try it. the heads are going to be the easiest to read. we'll be able to figure out where we are from that. carmean: simply looking at the surface of the picture reveals that changes have been made in certain areas. but in order to find out what those revisions might have been, it's necessary to make an x-ray.
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because of that study with the horse race, i'd like to go all the way across-- just block the ole thing out. that may be hard to read, since there are no faces. but we can try. but i'd also-- i'd come all the way down this figure, si can changes there see already-- already. yeah, so let's start there. we'll probably have to do the whole thing, eventually, if we find anything-- okay. carmean: close study of the young acrobat reveals the profile of his legs clearly visible beneath the blue puffy pants that he now wears. this change matches the costume of tights seen in the early study showing the horse race in the background. by x-raying the picture, we may be able to determine, partially at least, what that original paint layer was underneath the surface of the picture. if you can understand the stages
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in developing this picture, then you can understd casss hoenigswd: is is the fire of the small, buit's going iner the wrong direction. it doesn't look the same, stylistically. no, so that's now something again. 's in tween. it's not part of that figure. that's out too far to be shoulder line, an certainly couldn't fit on the body that way. do you have this-- more of this area? carmean: in their contrasts of light and dark, the x-rays reveal the existence of seral figures beneath the surface. do s what tre? hoenswald: ers an arm. but there's nothing that correspon to it on the painting. there is no t that the fire cane connected with the standing harlequin in the center of the earlier gouache. this suggests that the entire circus mily comsion
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described by fernande olivier may, in fact, be beneath the surface of the picture. in order to explore this possibility, it's necessary to x-ray the entire composition. th's beautul eserd. carmean: an x-ray can only reveal an under-image in a black-and-white pattern. in order to find out what colors picasso might have used, it is possible to take microscopic paint samples from the picture.
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sincit's now pretty clear thatt do correspond to the print, let's see what that supports evidences here that idea. the man in the center, i think... carmean: only hinted at by the standing harlequin, the composite reveals the extraordinary existence of major elements of the gouache in all portions of the picture. carmean: the all-important girl on the ball, which fernande olivier... hoenigswald: right here, you can see the same-- the line of the end of her leotard and her feet going down onto the ba.
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but where the ball is, right-- right here-- here's h hipthere's, carmean: white paint, being the most dense, shows up most strongly in an x-ray, and thus, the white horse is clearly visible as a broad pattern of white markings. aerrea, a sll ild carrng firood is visible at the outer margin. the harlequin, standing hands on hips, is clearly visible, including the line of his tunic costume and the curve of his neck. even more surprising is the head, which is so beautifully preserved, because it cannot be connected to either the early study or to any of the imagery we now see in the picture.
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it must, in fact, be connected to another image beneath the surface of the picture; a middle layer exists. this second layer contained two boys standing in a landscape, figures o match, in reversed form, an image known in a gouache which we can, in fact, date to march 1905. carmean: this face is clearly independent of the picture and really belongs t sond state, we can sayhat. carmean: it crespondsith they head that's up there,cture also from the two acrobats' style. the broad forehead that that figure has, which does correspond almost exactly. picasrobay took that image and just fpped it, reed it, turned it arou. no h rac andno dogn re.
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hoenigswald: i mean, those things could be here, but they may have been painted in pigments that weren't dense. that's simply all at the x-r is picki up. rit; what abou the color samples? how are they--where were they taken? and how do they correspond? what we thought might be most useful was to te one througheleot because we knew fr the gouache that it was pink, anyou can see that we have a slide of the sample; you can see the pink layer which is hard to imagine it could be anything else but a bright pinkeotard. no, that corresponds exactly. it's even the same kind of nk. carmean: if we describe the stages in the pntg, casso firspain an enlargemt of gouache showing the girl balancing on the ball. this is probably done in the fall of 1904. probably in march of 15, this circus familyone composition is painted out
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and replaced by a second composition showing two boys standing in an empty landscape. at a later point, this composition is revised. .there, and probably the sequence is for ese two to be here, b in a la proportion, and they're reduced, changed slightly, and then these two figures are added, pretty much in this costume, ldg a ba wearing a top hat. the top hat istill visible up in here and his arm is down, moved up in the later stage. then the girl is added, thsket's enhanged. then fin, e's moved into thlower corner. 's probaa late addition. carmean: the painting contains
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three totally different compositions, of wchthe nal one, evolved thugh twstages. discoveries of this nature can mean many things, raing from rewriting our understanding of this crucial year in picasso's life, to the simple changing of the date on the label next to the picture. it should now date om late 1904. it may be october. we know that he was going to the circus as early as december 7, 1904, because that's when grock, the famous comedian, debuted at the cirque medrano, and it's recorded in fernande olivier's diaries that once grock was there, they never missed an evening. so that the picture probably took up to 15 months to complete. extraordinary! that's a big hunk out of his creative life. think of all the other changes that were happening in his own approach to things. picasso had one kind of image in his mind for the picture-- e idea.
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th t child, and saw the picture as a metapho and put the slightest changes int, not major changes, but all the ones that add the strange opposite quality to the picture. brown: you feel there is a kind of tension by virtue of this open space, that this girl has been frozen out, has been isolated. carmean: and we know also that this funny, little water pitcher-- in her memoirs, olivier talks about meeting picasso where they all came with large pitchers to gather water outside the bateau-levoir and i think that's an emblem for her. that's, in effect, picasso saying, "oh, yes, that's where i met her, where e was carrng th lar water jug," so to spk. and it bomes a kind of pvate emblem, in the same way th hs painted himself as harlequin, which was his own private symbolism. but there's also the language of gesture. i think of this left hand of picasso reaching around, so of behind h bk,
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and the gap betwn e fingertips a thlittle girl. i think that's such a wonderful emblem of the kind of emotion that picasso might have been going through with the idea of this girl having to be returned to the orphanage. the other thing about this figure is the terracotta color. 's there in the vase-- water pitcher, but it's also there in that figure, in that skirt down here. the rest of the figures don't have that quality. so that, in effect, she's added later to a certain degree, just by that shift in tonality. th's what fascinatesme about thr that, in a way, it's such a summary of the discoveries that you've made in terms of the layering, in picasso's execution of it, are, in a sense, emblematic of his development as an artist and he goes from this first stage, which is sort of a family document of circus life, to this very monumental study of two people beginning to have this sense of isolation,
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to this enormously rich final production, which, in many ways, speaks volumes aboutthe morn ar, his alienation from society, and the human emotions of people not being able to communicate with other people. carmean: we now know that, rather than being simply part of the early rose period, "the family of saltimbanques" embraces the entire period. the mysterious charting of the early rose period is solved. indeed, at the end of painting "the family of saltimbanques," picasso has become a modern artist. ( music )
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